A string of characters is best parsed using a finite state machine

(written by lawrence krubner, however indented passages are often quotes). You can contact lawrence at: lawrence@krubner.com

I already knew this, but I don’t think I knew the extent of what was sacrificed to give Perl backreferences s:

Notice that Perl requires over sixty seconds to match a 29-character string. The other approach, labeled Thompson NFA for reasons that will be explained later, requires twenty microseconds to match the string. That’s not a typo. The Perl graph plots time in seconds, while the Thompson NFA graph plots time in microseconds: the Thompson NFA implementation is a million times faster than Perl when running on a miniscule 29-character string. The trends shown in the graph continue: the Thompson NFA handles a 100-character string in under 200 microseconds, while Perl would require over 1015 years. (Perl is only the most conspicuous example of a large number of popular programs that use the same algorithm; the above graph could have been Python, or PHP, or Ruby, or many other languages. A more detailed graph later in this article presents data for other implementations.)

It may be hard to believe the graphs: perhaps you’ve used Perl, and it never seemed like regular expression matching was particularly slow. Most of the time, in fact, regular expression matching in Perl is fast enough. As the graph shows, though, it is possible to write so-called “pathological” regular expressions that Perl matches very very slowly. In contrast, there are no regular expressions that are pathological for the Thompson NFA implementation. Seeing the two graphs side by side prompts the question, “why doesn’t Perl use the Thompson NFA approach?” It can, it should, and that’s what the rest of this article is about.

Historically, regular expressions are one of computer science’s shining examples of how using good theory leads to good programs. They were originally developed by theorists as a simple computational model, but Ken Thompson introduced them to programmers in his implementation of the text editor QED for CTSS. Dennis Ritchie followed suit in his own implementation of QED, for GE-TSS. Thompson and Ritchie would go on to create Unix, and they brought regular expressions with them. By the late 1970s, regular expressions were a key feature of the Unix landscape, in tools such as ed, sed, grep, egrep, awk, and lex.

Today, regular expressions have also become a shining example of how ignoring good theory leads to bad programs. The regular expression implementations used by today’s popular tools are significantly slower than the ones used in many of those thirty-year-old Unix tools.

…One common regular expression extension that does provide additional power is called backreferences. A backreference like \1 or \2 matches the string matched by a previous parenthesized expression, and only that string: (cat|dog)\1 matches catcat and dogdog but not catdog nor dogcat. As far as the theoretical term is concerned, regular expressions with backreferences are not regular expressions. The power that backreferences add comes at great cost: in the worst case, the best known implementations require exponential search algorithms, like the one Perl uses. Perl (and the other languages) could not now remove backreference support, of course, but they could employ much faster algorithms when presented with regular expressions that don’t have backreferences, like the ones considered above. This article is about those faster algorithms.

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