No locks for performance under load with concurrency

(written by lawrence krubner, however indented passages are often quotes). You can contact lawrence at:


It’s quite clear that the lock-free approach scales a lot better under contention. This follows our intuition because lock-freedom allows system-wide progress even when a thread is blocked. If one goroutine is blocked on an insert or lookup operation, other operations may proceed. With a mutex, this isn’t possible.

Matchbox performs well, particularly in multithreaded environments, but there are still more optimizations to be made. This includes improvements both in memory consumption and runtime performance. Applying the Ctrie techniques to this type of trie results in a fairly non-compact structure. There may be ways to roll up branches—either eagerly or after removals—and expand them lazily as necessary. Other optimizations might include placing a cache or Bloom filter in front of the trie to avoid descending it. The main difficulty with these will be managing support for wildcards.


To summarize, we’ve seen why subscription matching is often a major concern for message-oriented middleware and why it’s frequently a bottleneck. Concurrency is crucial for high-performance systems, and we’ve looked at how we can achieve concurrency without relying on locks while framing it within the context of linearizability. Compare-and-swap is a fundamental tool used to implement lock-free data structures, but it’s important to be conscious of the pitfalls. We introduce invariants to protect data consistency. The Ctrie is a great example of how to do this and was foundational in our lock-free subscription-matching implementation. Finally, we validated our work by showing that lock-free data structures scale dramatically better with multithreaded workloads under contention.